Study and Implement Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy Conscientiously and Forge Ahead on a Momentous Journey of China’s Diplomacy in the New Era


Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC), General Secretary Xi Jinping, a Marxist statesman, thinker and strategist with outstanding political wisdom, extraordinary courage to advance theories and a keen understanding of international changes and the trend of the times, has pioneered a series of new conceptions, new philosophies and new strategies on external affairs. These have formed the basis of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy. 

As an important part of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy is a major theoretical development that applies the basic tenets of Marxism to the practice of major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics. It reflects the governance philosophy of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core on the diplomatic front. It provides the fundamental guideline for China’s foreign policy in the new era. We must study it earnestly, and fully understand its key principles and tenets.

We must fully grasp the intellectual inspirations of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy which originates from our times and also provides guidance and driving forces for advancing the times. The world today is experiencing major changes unseen in a century. China today is at a critical stage toward the nation’s great rejuvenation. And China’s development is becoming an increasingly important force behind the transformation of the world. It is against the backdrop of these historic changes in China’s relationship with the world that Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy has formed and matured.

When a great philosophy bears the distinctive feature of its times, it will demonstrate unprecedented vigor and lead to great strides of the times. Since the 18th National Congress of the CPC, historic achievements and historic shifts have been made in the cause of the Party and the country. This is fundamentally attributable to the leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core and the guidance provided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era.

On China’s diplomatic front, it is under the leadership of General Secretary Xi Jinping and the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy that we have been able to see the overall trajectory of this complex and volatile world, keenly grasp the features of a transitioning international system and the historical convergence of China’s Two Centenary Goals, fully understand the new historic juncture in China’s development, and pursue the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation as the mission of the major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era.

We must fully grasp the truth embodied in Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy which advances Marxism in the Chinese context and delivers new developments of theories. Marx pointed out that theory is fulfilled in a nation only insofar as it is the fulfillment of the needs of that nation. Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy applies dialectical and historical materialism in an unprecedented way, and adapts the basic tenets of Marxism to the reality of socialism with Chinese characteristics entering a new era as well as the tasks of China’s major-country diplomacy under the new circumstances. It has given insightful answers to a series of key questions in theory and practice, namely, what kind of world and what type of international relations China should promote, what kind of foreign policy best serves China, and how China is to conduct diplomacy in the new era.

For example, through applying the Marxist theory about dynamics between the productive forces and the relations of production, and between the economic base and the superstructure, Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy has offered an accurate analysis of the problems in economic globalization and global economic development, and proposed important visions with Chinese features on global governance, ecological civilization and development, among others. Putting practice first, it emphasizes analyzing and addressing practical issues in diplomacy in the midst of positive interactions between China and other countries. Based on the progress and experience of China’s diplomacy on various fronts, it proposes a new type of international relations featuring mutual respect, fairness, justice and win-win cooperation and the implementation of the principles of “amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness” toward the neighboring regions and “sincerity, real results, amity and good faith” toward other developing countries. These important innovations both in theory and practice represent a deeper understanding about international relations and China’s foreign policy. They have enriched and taken forward Marxist theories on international relations, and broken new ground in the system of diplomatic theories of New China.

We must fully grasp the firm confidence conveyed by Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy which upholds and carries forward the fine traditional Chinese culture. General Secretary Xi Jinping has stressed on multiple occasions that China’s fine traditional culture is a prominent strength of our nation and our most profound source of cultural soft power. Over the years, by drawing inspirations from the Chinese culture, General Secretary Xi Jinping has realized a creative transformation and development of traditional Chinese philosophies and values, such as “harmony without conformity”, “unity in trying times”, “the greater common good”, and “harmony between man and Nature”. He has set out many insightful visions, proposals and initiatives such as the visions on security, civilization, the environment, human rights, and the relationship between the greater good and one’s own interests, which stand in clear contrast to the outdated zero-sum game and power politics mentality. They have improved on and transcended traditional theories of international relations, enriched the contents and expanded the outreach of China’s diplomatic theories, and provided new practical and theoretical underpinnings for developing diplomatic theories with Chinese characteristics. They fully reflect the universal aspiration of all countries for development and progress, capture the greatest common denominator among people of all nations in aspiring to a better world, and have therefore gained increasing support and endorsement from the international community, taking the moral high ground in today’s world.

We must fully grasp the noble sense of commitment embodied in Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy to the future of the world and progress of humanity. The CPC is a political party that strives for both the happiness of the Chinese people and the cause of human progress. The Party’s endeavors over the past century have not only fundamentally transformed China and its future, but also had a profound impact on the course of world history. General Secretary Xi Jinping has carried forward and built on the traditions of the Party’s external work and New China’s diplomacy, and broadened the strategic vision of China’s diplomatic theories in an all-round way. By putting China’s development in the global context and with the aim of realizing the common interests of China and the world and the well-being of the entire humanity, General Secretary Xi Jinping has put forward the important vision of building a community with a shared future for mankind. This is China’s solution and answer to the fundamental questions of our times. This is the right way forward for advancing world peace and development. And this provides the banner that guides our thinking on conducting major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era. 


In line with this vision, General Secretary Xi Jinping has advocated an outlook of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security for the world, promoted the common values of humanity — peace, development, equity, justice, democracy and freedom, advanced high-quality Belt and Road cooperation under the principle of extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits, and launched the Global Development Initiative consistent with the “people-centered” core development philosophy, all in a bid to provide new opportunities for the world through China’s development. Under the banner of building a community with a shared future for mankind, China has been a builder of world peace, a contributor to global development, a defender of international order, and a provider of global public goods. China has steadily showcased its distinct style and vision as a major country. The broad vision and inspiring foresight that General Secretary Xi Jinping has demonstrated as the leader of a major country have received increasingly wide appreciation and respect from the international community.  


We must fully grasp the vital importance of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy in guiding major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics and enabling it to make great strides and historic achievements one after another. Since the 18th National Congress of the Party, under the personal guidance and direction of General Secretary Xi Jinping, the Party has improved the system and institution for exercising centralized, unified leadership and strengthened its coordination over external work. Coordination on external affairs has become more smooth between political parties, the government, people’s congresses, the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the armed forces, local authorities, and people’s organizations. China has further enhanced its strategic planning on the diplomatic front, and an all-round, multi-tiered, wide-ranging and multi-dimensional global network of partnerships has generally taken shape. China’s diplomacy has become more effective in serving national development, and has contributed to wider and deeper opening-up and mutually beneficial cooperation in more sectors.


Meanwhile, we have fought courageously against attacks and smears from anti-China elements on Taiwan, Hong Kong, Xinjiang, Tibet, maritime issues and human rights, and against the rise of unilateralism, protectionism and bullying in the world. We have effectively defended China’s sovereignty, security and development interests, and created a generally favorable external environment for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and embarking on fully building China into a modern socialist country. Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy has guided China in breaking new ground in its diplomatic endeavors amid profound changes in the world. China has significantly enhanced its global influence, international appeal and ability to shape the world.

At the ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC, General Secretary Xi Jinping solemnly declared that China’s national rejuvenation has become a historical inevitability. The sixth plenary session of the 19th Central Committee of the CPC has stated that the Party is rallying and leading the Chinese people on a new journey toward realizing the Second Centenary Goal. At this historic starting point, we face more complex circumstances, greater responsibilities and more formidable missions. We must readily equip our mind with Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and use it to guide our practice and advance our work.

The compilation and publication of the Study Outline for Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy (hereinafter referred to as the Outline) is an important decision by the CPC Central Committee in light of the overall work of the Party and the country and part of the effort to study and apply Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era in a deep-going way. It is also a significant step in advancing major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era. It is a major undertaking both for the development of Party theories and for the diplomatic work. The Outline fully captures the original contribution of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era on the diplomatic front, provides a systemic account of the general context, profound connotations, theoretical value and fruitful practice of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy, and presents an authoritative reading guide that helps cadres and the general public study and apply Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy.

We need to earnestly study, apply and learn from the Outline and use this as an opportunity to deepen our understanding and practice of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy. We on the diplomatic front must set a fine example in studying and applying Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy, make this a top political task and get a head-start in grasping and applying Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy in our work. We need to make sure that we gain a thorough understanding of it, fully practice it, and turn what we have learned into actual results in our work and steadily open up new prospects in major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era.  


We must further raise our political awareness and more purposefully follow the centralized, unified leadership of the Party Central Committee theoretically, politically and in practice in proactively advancing Chinas diplomatic endeavor. We need to deepen our understanding of the core tenets, essence, rich substance and implementation requirements of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy. We need to earnestly align our thinking and action with General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important instructions on diplomatic work, with the centralized, unified leadership of the Party over external work and with the implementation of major foreign policies, principles, decisions and plans of the CPC Central Committee. We must strengthen our consciousness of the need to maintain political integrity, think in big-picture terms, follow the leadership core and keep in alignment with the central Party leadership, enhance confidence in the path, theories, system, and culture of socialism with Chinese characteristics, firmly uphold General Secretary Xi Jinping’s core position in both the Party Central Committee and the Party as a whole and firmly uphold the Party Central Committee’s authority and its centralized, unified leadership. We must make sustained efforts to improve our capacity for political judgment, thinking, and implementation, and forge a strong contingent for foreign-related work equipped with Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy.

We must keep a firm grasp of the countrys most fundamental interests and continue to enhance our ability to keep in mind both domestic and international imperatives. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that leading officials should have two factors in mind: one is the strategic goal of achieving national rejuvenation, and the other is the world experiencing a level of change unseen in a century. This is the prerequisite to planning our work. We need to integrate the study of the Outline with the study of the Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and the ongoing study of the CPC history, and get an accurate understanding of the historical mission and future direction of China’s external work in the new era. We need to vigorously enhance our ability to cope with the complex international landscape and the immense external work, and better serve China’s major domestic political agenda and foster an external environment more conducive to fully building a modern socialist country in all respects.

We must uphold multilateralism and resolutely promote the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. To build a community with a shared future for mankind is one of the “nine musts” of the strategic plan that General Secretary Xi Jinping laid out in his important speech at the ceremony marking the centenary of the CPC, and represents the overall objective of major-country diplomacy with Chinese characteristics. It was pointed out during the sixth plenary session of the 19th Central Committee of the CPC that the concept of a community with a shared future for mankind has become a banner leading trends of the times and human progress. We need to engage proactively in shaping international affairs with a longer vision, broader mind and greater poise. It is vital to firmly uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, facilitate reform and development of the global governance system, and adhere to the basic norms of international relations. It is crucial to defend international fairness and justice, reject the Cold War mentality and zero-sum game, and stand against hegemonism and power politics. It is essential to uphold and practice true multilateralism and build greater consensus and pool greater strength for the building of a community with a shared future for mankind.

We must fully bring out the fighting spirit and have the courage to triumph over each and every risk and challenge on the way forward. As China is moving ever closer to the center of the world stage, the risks and challenges we face are notably on the rise, and we will brace ourselves for a great struggle with many new features of the times. General Secretary Xi Jinping has stated that to realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation will be no easy task like a walk in the park; nor will it happen through sheer fanfare. We need to be alert to dangers even in times of calm, and heighten awareness for potential risks and dangers. We need to acquire a deep understanding of the new conflicts and challenges stemming from the complex international situation, abandon the illusions, and be both brave and adept in carrying out struggles. We must draw a clear line between what is right and what is wrong on issues of fundamental importance, and never flinch, not even an inch, when it comes to principles, so as to resolutely safeguard our country’s sovereignty, security and development interests with unyielding determination and effective measures.

We must work relentlessly to strengthen our international communication capacity and continue to amplify the impact and appeal of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy. The international significance of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy and its great value to our times are gaining growing interest and recognition in the world. We should make vigorous efforts to build greater capacity in international communication and to better communicate China’s discourse and narrative to the world. It is crucial to expound, in an expressive, appealing and compelling manner, on important visions such as building a community with a shared future for mankind, fostering a new type of international relations and upholding the common values of humanity. We need to inform other countries of the scientific and advanced nature of Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy, and forge better, deeper understanding and recognition of China’s path, system and theories.

Fear not the strong pass iron-clad on all sides, the summit’s now surmounted with big strides. The Chinese nation is marching toward its great rejuvenation with unstoppable strides and is assuming increasingly important responsibilities for the cause of human progress. We will rally more closely around the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at its core, and follow the guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy. We will learn from history to open up future prospects, bolster self-confidence and self-reliance, carry forward fine traditions and make innovations, forge ahead with fortitude and overcome difficulties with resolve, so as to make new, greater contributions to realizing the Chinese dream of great national rejuvenation and to lasting peace and common development of the world!

Wang Yi is State Councilor and Minister of Foreign Affairs.